School of Physical Sciences of USTC was founded in 2009. It is the School of Science of USTC in origin, which was founded in 1994 and comprised department of Mathematics, Physics ,Chemistry , Astronomy ,Geography, Biology. Its honorary dean is Mr. Chen Ning Yang, the Nobel Prize owner. At present the school consists of Physics, Modern Physics, Optics and Optical Engineering, Astronomy, Engineering and Applied Physics,Physics Experiment Teaching Center. Since 1958, School of Physical Sciences became the master of physics gathering place, which made it one of the top centers for physics research.

School of Physical Science now has 274 members of faculty, among whom are 108 professors,107 associate professors, including 15 academicians of CAS and CAE, 2 National Excellent Teacher,6 members of Cheung Kong Scholars Programme, 35 members supported by the National Foundation for Distinguished Youths.

School has the State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics , 4 Key Laboratories of CAS : the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information ,  the Key Laboratory of Microscale Magnetic Resonance , the Key Laboratory of Strongty-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, the Key Laboratory of Galaxies and Cosmology and 2 Key Laboratories of Anhui province:The PhotoElectro Laboratory as well as The Physical Electronics Laboratory.

Meanwhile, the school is closely associated with two national laboratories: Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale as well as National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The school has four fields of specialties: Physics, Astronomy, Electronic Science and Technology, Optical Engineering, covering 10 sub-disciplines: Optics, Condensed Matter Physics, Theoretical Physics, Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Astrophysics, Physical Electronics, Microelectronics and Solid Electronics , Optical Engineering. Among them Physics, Astronomy and Nuclear Science and Technology is the first category of national key specialty, Astrophysics is the second category of national key specialty Physical Electronics and Optical Engineering are key disciplines of Anhui province.

Since the year 2000 , School of Physical Sciences of USTC has published over 500 papers as first author every year , among which over 350 papers are indexed by SCI/EI . Physics papers published in journals of high impact factor are in the leading position among national universities .From 2007 to 2011, there were 26 papers published in Science/Nature,and over 320 papers published in Phys.Rev.Lett, among which were over 50 as first author. For 18 times 11 achievements have been awarded international significant annual progress on physics, Top ten major news on basic scientific research of the National Department of Science and Technology as well as top ten scientific and technological progress of Chinese Universities. There are 3 awarded second prize of The National Natural Science, 4 awarded first prize of Anhui Natural Science, 3 awarded second prize of Anhui Natural Science, 3 awarded first prize of Scientific and technological progress of Higher Education Institutions in Anhui Province.